Why is it important to characterize nanoparticles?
Characterization of a nanoparticle’s physical and chemical properties is important for ensuring the reproducibility of toxicology studies, and is also vital for studying how the physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles determine their biological effects.
What are the characteristics of nanoparticles?
There are three major physical properties of nanoparticles, and all are interrelated: (1) they are highly mobile in the free state (e.g., in the absence of some other additional influence, a 10-nm-diameter nanosphere of silica has a sedimentation rate under gravity of 0.01 mm/day in water); (2) they have enormous …
What are the effects of nanoparticles?
The effects of inhaled nanoparticles in the body may include lung inflammation and heart problems. Studies in humans show that breathing in diesel soot causes a general inflammatory response and alters the system that regulates the involuntary functions in the cardiovascular system, such as control of heart rate.
What is the difference between nanoparticles and nanomaterials?
Nanomaterials are materials that have structural components smaller than 1 micrometer in at least one dimension. Nanoparticles are particles with at least one dimension smaller than 1 micron and potentially as small as atomic and molecular length scales (~0.2 nm).
How are nanoparticles used in medicine?
One application of nanotechnology in medicine currently being developed involves employing nanoparticles to deliver drugs, heat, light or other substances to specific types of cells (such as cancer cells). This technique reduces damage to healthy cells in the body and allows for earlier detection of disease.
How is the biodistribution of a nanoparticle used?
Biodistribution Biodistribution plays a very important role in the evaluation of a nanoparticle’s diagnostic and therapeutic efficacy, biocompatibility, and toxicity. Commonly used tools for measuring biodistribution include radiolabels, near-infrared fluorescence, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).
How are pharmacokinetics and excretion of nanoparticles taken into account?
Thus the pharmacokinetics, excretion, and toxicity of nanoparticles will be taken into account prior to the design of nanoparticles and during thorough in vivo studies.
How are nanoparticles used in the phagocytic system?
For example, coating a polymeric nanoparticle with poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) is a key tool for extending circulation times, allowing escape from detection by the mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS), which tags foreign bodies with opsonin proteins and ensures their elimination through the liver and spleen.
How are nanoparticles similar to other biomolecules?
Nanoparticles are comparable to biomolecules, such as antibodies or DNA, but larger than small molecules. Thus, their inherent size allows circulating nanoparticles a chance to interact with cell surface biomolecules which would otherwise go unnoticed, yet they are large enough to be crafted with moieties for imaging and therapeutics.