## Where does turbulent blood flow occur?

In arteries, turbulent blood flow can occur where atherosclerotic plaques narrow and vary the vessel lumen, where blood vessels branch or where aneurysms are encountered. The pronounced bend in the ascending aorta also creates turbulent flow.

## Can you feel turbulent blood flow?

Your doctor may listen to the arteries in your neck with a stethoscope. If an abnormal sound, called a bruit, is heard over an artery, it may reflect turbulent blood flow.

**How can we detect turbulent blood flow in our body?**

Narrowing of a carotid artery produces turbulent blood flow. Like water rushing along a bubbling brook, turbulent flow in a blood vessel is noisy. Your doctor can hear that noise, called a bruit, by listening to your carotid arteries through a stethoscope.

### How do you know if a flow is turbulent or laminar?

For practical purposes, if the Reynolds number is less than 2000, the flow is laminar. If it is greater than 3500, the flow is turbulent. Flows with Reynolds numbers between 20 are sometimes referred to as transitional flows. Most fluid systems in nuclear facilities operate with turbulent flow.

### Is turbulent flow faster than laminar?

The Reynolds number is the ratio between inertia and viscous forces and features the flow speed at the numerator, so in this specific case turbulent flow is faster than laminar.

**Which is better laminar or turbulent flow?**

Turbulent flow is a flow regime characterized by chaotic property changes. This includes rapid variation of pressure and flow velocity in space and time. In contrast to laminar flow the fluid no longer travels in layers and mixing across the tube is highly efficient.

#### What is a disadvantage of turbulent flow?

A turbulent flow increases the amount of air resistance and noise; however, a turbulent flow also accelerates heat conduction and thermal mixing. Therefore, understanding, handling, and controlling turbulent flows can be crucial for successful product design.

#### What can cause turbulent flow?

Turbulence is caused by excessive kinetic energy in parts of a fluid flow, which overcomes the damping effect of the fluid’s viscosity. For this reason turbulence is commonly realized in low viscosity fluids.

**Why is turbulent flow important?**

Richardson’s studies highlight an important feature of turbulent flows: they are energy demanding. A turbulent flow will dissipate energy and decay to a laminar flow unless it is fed by an external source of energy.

## Why is turbulent flow bad?

Turbulence increases the energy required to drive blood flow because turbulence increases the loss of energy in the form of friction, which generates heat. When plotting a pressure-flow relationship (see figure to right), turbulence increases the perfusion pressure required to drive a given flow.

## What are the characteristics of turbulent flow?

Turbulent flow, type of fluid (gas or liquid) flow in which the fluid undergoes irregular fluctuations, or mixing, in contrast to laminar flow, in which the fluid moves in smooth paths or layers. In turbulent flow the speed of the fluid at a point is continuously undergoing changes in both magnitude and direction.

**Why is turbulent flow better for heat transfer?**

Characterized by turbulence, where fluid does not flow in smooth layers but is agitated. Heat transfer occurs at the channel wall. Turbulent flow, due to the agitation factor, develops no insulating blanket and heat is transferred very rapidly.

### How does temperature affect Reynolds number?

For the same concentration, the critical Reynolds number increases as the temperature increases, and thus the heat transfer reduction range is enlarged. However, the critical Reynolds number starts to decrease with temperature when the temperature exceeds critical value depending on the corresponding concentration.

### How does turbulence increase heat transfer?

The heat transfer coefficient increases when the fluid velocity increases (better mixing in the turbulent boundary layer, thinner laminar su-blayer). That’s why ‘Heat Transfer Coefficient’ (which is the combined property of fluid+flow+geometry of body) increases with increase in the velocity of fluid.

**At what Reynolds number is turbulent flow?**

For flow in a pipe of diameter D, experimental observations show that for “fully developed” flow, laminar flow occurs when ReD turbulent flow occurs when ReD > 2900.

#### What does Reynolds number tell you?

The Reynolds number, referred to as Re, is used to determine whether the fluid flow is laminar or turbulent. It is one of the main controlling parameters in all viscous flows where a numerical model is selected according to pre-calculated Reynolds number.

#### What affects Reynolds number?

Although friction factor and temperature do affect inertial forces and viscosity to some degree, and therefore, Reynolds number, viscosity has the most direct effect upon the value of the Reynolds Number.5 days ago

**Can turbulent flow be steady?**

However, turbulent flow is always unsteady. Turbulence is an inherently unsteady process since it involves rapid variations of the thermo-fluid properties. Turbulent flows can, nevertheless, be statistically steady, in the sense that the mean flow features do not vary over time.

## How do you know if a flow is steady?

Mathematically, steady flow is that in which any property of fluid doesn’t change with time at a particular point in the flow. If, however, the tap is not kept constant and is opened more and more, flow speed at tap outlet keeps increasing. Such a flow is called UNSTEADY FLOW.

## Is laminar steady flow?

Yes, a steady flow is always laminar (but not conversely as you already understood). Turbulent flows are by definition time-dependent (and thus unsteady) flows and therefore not laminar. Turbulent flows can however be statistically stationary.