What is the difference between photothermal therapy and photodynamic therapy?

What is the difference between photothermal therapy and photodynamic therapy?

In PTT, a photothermal (PT) agent is employed for the selective local heating for healing abnormal cells or tissues; whereas, in PDT, the treatment occurs through a series of photochemical reactions triggered by photoactivated molecules or materials called photosensitizer (PS) drugs.

What is photothermal cancer therapy?

Photothermal therapy (PTT) is a cancer treatment that induces cancer cell death by heat generated in tumor tissue exposed to near-infrared (NIR) light1. NIR absorbents are used for facilitating efficient heat production2.

What is photothermal ablation?

Definition. The process of destroying tumor cells by activating nanoparticles inside tumors with light which results in heating of the particles and subsequent destruction of the tumor.

Is photothermal therapy effective?

Therefore, photothermal therapy is a reliable and powerful treatment modality for cancer treatment (Fig. 9.8). Moreover, it is noteworthy that hyperthermia may boost therapeutic efficacy of radiotherapy and chemotherapy (Kamping, 2006; Datta et al., 2015; Datta et al., 2016).

What is the end outcome of photothermal effects?

Photothermal effect is a phenomenon associated with electromagnetic radiation. It is produced by the photoexcitation of material, resulting in the production of thermal energy (heat).

What is a photosensitizer used for?

Photosensitizers are molecules that can be activated by light in order to generate ROS that can damage cell structures from microorganisms or from diseased mammalian cells leading to cell death.

What are photothermal properties?

Photothermal therapy (PTT) is a minimally invasive technique where incident light is absorbed by nanoparticles and converted its energy to local heat within tumor tissue and it selectivity kills cancer cells with the induction apoptosis in them or directly through a rapid necrosis as the local temperature reaches to …

What is photothermal conversion efficiency?

The photothermal conversion efficiency is determined by the fraction of the absorption in the extinction. Both the absorption and scattering cross sections of metal nanocrystals can be calculated theoretically.

What is a good photosensitizer?

A good photosensitizer should absorb photons efficiently (i.e., high absorption coefficient), have a high quantum yield of triplet formation, and the triplet state should be long lived in order to have time to react with neighbouring target molecules. Even dimers of the photosensitizer can be photochemically inactive.

How is photothermal time calculated?

Photothermal time (PTT) is a product between growing degree-days (GDD) and day length (hours) for each day. PTT = GDD × DL It can be used to quantify environment, as well as the timing of developmental stages of plants.

How is photothermal therapy used in cancer treatment?

Photothermal therapy (PTT) is a physicochemical therapy for cancer treatment that uses optical radiation in the NIR wavelength range (700–2000 nm). When a laser is focused on a tissue, photons are absorbed by intercellular and intracellular areas and the energy of photons is converted into heat.

How is PTT used in the treatment of cancer?

PTT is a promising therapeutic approach that uses laser light to heat contrast agents introduced into the tissue in order to cause thermal damage in the region of interest (e.g. tumor). From: Applications of Nanoscience in Photomedicine, 2015

Which is the best nanomaterial for photothermal therapy?

Owing to their unique properties of high optical absorption capacity in the near infrared region and photothermal conversion, graphene-based nanomaterials are ideal candidates for photothermal therapy. In 2010, Liu and colleagues initially reported the photoablative properties of graphene in cancer ( Yang et al., 2010 ).

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