What is RSS in Vdj recombination?
RSSs flank all gene segments of the antigen receptor loci and designate them for use by the RAGs. Each RSS is composed of a well-conserved heptamer and nonamer with a less well-conserved spacer between these elements (Figure 3). The recombination signal sequence (RSS). …
What is RSS immunology?
RSS (Really Simple Syndication) is a web feed XML format that contains either a summary of content from an associated web site or the full text. The Journal of Immunology offers RSS feeds of current and recent citation information and abstracts.
What is the 12 23 rule in immunology?
The 12/23 rule prevents rearrangement of V or J genes within their own clusters and ensures the obligatory inclusion of a D segment during IgH gene recombination, because the VH and JH genes are both flanked by 23RS, and the DH genes are flanked by 12RS.
What does RAG1 and RAG2 do?
The RAG1 and RAG2 proteins initiate V(D)J recombination by introducing double-strand breaks at the border between a recombination signal sequence (RSS) and a coding segment. The nonamer is protected, with extensive protein contacts within the minor groove.
What immune cells require Vdj recombination?
To do so, it utilizes two major types of immune cells, T cells and B cells (or, collectively, lymphocytes).
Where does somatic recombination occur?
Somatic recombination occurs prior to antigen contact, during B cell development in the bone marrow.
What does VDJ stand for?
VDJ stands for variability, diversity, and joining, respectively, and VDJ rearrangement has 4 key characteristics that help ensure that each antigen receptor is unique.
What are the enzymes involved in VDJ recombination?
VDJ recombinase refers to a collection of enzymes some of which are lymphocyte specific, and some that are expressed in many cell types. The initial steps of VDJ recombination are carried out by critical lymphocyte specific enzymes, called recombination activating gene -1 and -2 (RAG1 and RAG2).
When does V ( D ) J recombination take place?
V (D)J recombination is the process by which the variable region exons encoding the antigen recognition sites of receptors expressed on B and T lymphocytes are generated during early development via somatic assembly of component gene segments.
How does V ( D ) J recombinase maintain the specificity?
To maintain the specificity of recombination, V (D)J recombinase recognizes and binds to recombination signal sequences (RSSs) flanking the variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) genes segments.
How is V ( D ) J recombination different from CSR and SHM?
However, there are many mechanistic differences in these reactions. V (D)J recombination proceeds via precise DNA cleavage initiated by the RAG proteins at short conserved signal sequences, whereas CSR and SHM are initiated over large target regions via activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-mediated DNA deamination of transcribed target DNA.